The Chinese communities in Italy are growing rapidly from about 70,000 in 2008 to 330,000 in 2011 (Latham, 2011). islam et diaspora chinoise asiatique by wang gungwu. Guangdong y Hainan still represents the majority of the newly-constituted Chinese Diasporas. Other two important communities are in Rome and the one in Prato. Après le discours de Xi Jinping adressé à la diaspora chinoise aux États-Unis, celle du Royaume-Unie souhaite contribuer aux relations Chine - Royaume-Uni. Includes bibliographical references. First of all, from a sociological and cultural point of view, the role of Chinese emigrants has also considerably contributed to the development of economic and cultural aspects with distinct countries and societies in the world. The largest community is in Valencia, namely Carabobo. Between 1850 and the 1950s, a growing number of Chinese workers, mostly male peasants from coastal provinces, started leaving their homeland to seek employment opportunities in Southeast Asia. Chinatown London Official Page ‘Through the ages’ Available at The main communities are Milan Chinatown, the most important community in Italy, which amounts to 13,500 regular residents. An illustrative example would be the case of Major UK-based organizations, like the London Chinese Community Centre, the London Chinatown Chinese Association, the Yellow Earth Theatre Company and London Chinese Cultural Centre. A good example in this geographical area is the city of Sydney, which is currently the main destination city in Oceania for Chinese migrants (Barret, 2014). The highest concentration of Chinese communities can be found in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. In 2001, 33% of the Chinese community was aged 25 to 44 and a quarter of them had a university degree. The 21st century has witnessed a special wave of Chinese migrants to Oceania, because it plays a small but increasingly significant role in China’s efforts to further its economic and strategic interests. Compared with the 2001 Census, Chinese migrants in Australia have been increasing by 4.07% per year from 2006. The overseas Chinese population amounts to 1,146,250 people in 2005. Most migrants in this era were unskilled workers, driven by the growing demand for cheap manual labour elsewhere. Chinese people represent the largest non-European ethnic origin in Canada, amounting at circa 1,487,580. In Russia’s Far East and Siberia, reports say that the Chinese population could become the dominant ethnic group in the Russian Far East within 20 to 30 years. Furthermore, Africa should not be disregarded as a current relevant continent for Chinese migrants, more specifically as part of the new so-called “Chinese economic diplomacy”. The competitiveness with Chinese migrants leads to tensions with the indigenous population; for example in Johannesburg, South Africa, cultural tensions are often felt between the black and Chinese communities, especially since Chinese business is often in direct competition with black business, which is heavily supported by the government’s Black Economic Empowerment Policy (BEE). Que sais-je? The three countries with the highest number of Chinese population in Latin America are: Panama (135,000), Nicaragua (12,000),Costa Rica (9,170) and Peru. The idea of a distinct entity called the “Chinese diaspora” is contentious. Here, the Chinese government’s decision in 1980 to allow Chinese citizens to migrate abroad prompted Chinese migration to Europe to reach its highest level in history. Consequently, Southern European countries have been the main focus of Chinese migration for the past 30 years. Longtemps appliqué seulement à la diaspora juive, le terme ne s’étend à d’autres diasporas qu’à partir des années 1960 et n’entre dans les dictionnaires que dans les années 1980. The main Chinatown is in Luanda. In the case of Canada, which has more than one million citizens, Chinese people represent the largest ethnic non-European minority in the country. There are around 749,000 Ethnic Chinese in Australia (2011). Chinese population in Russia is estimated around 300,000 (European Chinese Association, 2008) and the main communities are in Moscow Chinatown, where around 15,000 live (Neumeyer, 2012) and in the Russian Far East (Khabarovsk, Vladivostok, and Ussuriysk). During the last decade the migration flows of Chinese citizens to North America has increased substantially. The major elements of Chinese culture which have been incorporated into local communities around the world are food, language, medicine and cultural events. Written by Loretta Baldassar et al. 2130464505. catalogue key. By Thierry Sanjuan. The first record of Chinese in Canada can be dated back to 1788. The profile of the current Chinese migrants has slightly changed during the last decade and nowadays Chinese migrants coming from the rural areas of Zhejiang, Fujian. In particular, Chinese migration to the Russian Far East might also be a source of diplomatic tensions: most of the bordering region used to be under Chinese rule and there are valuable natural resources in that area. Half the Chinese community lives in Paris, which has three Chinatown districts: the 13th Arrondissement of Paris, the Belleville area and the Temple and Arts-et-Meriers area. While short episodes of Chinese migration can be traced back through history, the phenomenon generally referred to as “Chinese Diaspora” only dates back to the mid-19th century (Liu & Van Dongen, 2013). © ICD - Academy for Cultural Diplomacy. He is the author of The Sea of Learning: Mobility and Identity in Nineteenth-Century Guangzhou (Harvard University Asia Center, 2006), Upriver Journeys: Diaspora and Empire in Southern China, 1570-1850 (Harvard University Asia Center, 2017), and Chinese Diasporas: A Social History of Global Migration (Cambridge University Press, 2020). The history of the Chinese diaspora in the United States is long and complex. The main communities are: Chinatown in London; the Chinese Quarter of Birmingham; the Chinatown in Manchester, which is the second largest Chinatown in the UK and the third in Europe; and the Chinatown in Liverpool, which is home to the oldest Chinese community in Europe. More specifically, Australia seems also to have a role to play in the future of the Chinese migration: it launched a permanent visa opportunity to attract Chinese businessman who are expected to invest in the upcoming years at least $5 million in the country particularly in the cities of Melbourne and Sydney (Barret, 2014). series title. Chinese Historical Society of America, (2006). The biggest community in the continent can be found in South Africa, but smaller communities can be found in Tanzania, Zambia, Ghana, Nigeria, Angola, Mauritius, Madagascar and Algeria (Moban and Tan-Mullins, 2009). China's economic growth is a much debated issue and is said to change the face of the world and presently world economic patterns are being reshaped. Managed to export and settle in several South American cities such as Lima. Since the opening of China’s economy in 1978, emigration from China has steadily gathered pace. The Overseas Chinese population amounts to 6,960,900 people in 2010. Local development patterns have been strongly affected by the extent, or lack, of emigrant connections. The second requirement for justifying the term diasporais to show that the similarities between separate communities create the conditions for actual transnational linkages and interrelationship. Library links . Although France, Germany and Italy have been considered as the main receptors of Chinese migrants, the United Kingdom and Spain are now the most important destinations for the Chinese community (Latham. Les diasporas asiatiques (chinoise, indienne) occupent une part croissante des diasporas mondiales tout en représentant une faible part de la population d’origine. In the UK it is estimated at around 630,000 (Latham, 2011). Particularly, in Latin America, Chinese culture has been developed extensively big urban areas like Lima, in Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires (Martin, 2011). Author: John Lee, Canberra. Aug 18, 2015 - This Pin was discovered by Nicolas Medevielle. In: Espace géographique, tome 23, n°1, 1994. p. 40 A good example of this was at the end of the 1860s some of the companies, such as the commercial house "Yun Wo On Co" (Lausent-Herrera, 2011). The Chinese population in Peru is around 1,300,000 (Jacque, 2008). La nouvelle géographie de la diaspora chinoise . Bangkok is the city with the biggest Chinatown (9% Chinese over 7,221,000 Thai). Mainly due to China’s investment in oil and infrastructure, which overtook the US to become Africa’s biggest trading partner in 2009, waves of migrants have temporarily settled in many African countries to work as construction workers and traders. However, the rate of growth is slowing down due to the worsening economic environment and the decreasing economic opportunities in the region (Latham. Also Kuala Lumpur and Penang are popular sites for Chinese diaspora. the economic power of the chinese diaspora. In fact, Chinese diaspora in the world serves as a tool of influence, not only for the promotion of China's culture and language, but also for the facilitation of lobbying for business purposes, economic growth and diplomatic purposes. By adopting the methods of semi-structured interview and online observation with 30 participants from Brisbane and Melbourne in Australia, this thesis has drawn three findings. That is, the German and Irish diasporas date from around the 18th century or perhaps slightly earlier. Diaspora chinoise. She focuses especially on the media's role in communication, in fostering a sense of community, in defining different kinds of 'transnational Chineseness' - overseas Chinese communities are often very different from one country to another - … The Chinese diaspora’s role in the rise of China 14 September 2016. Accessed 09/04/2014. A couple of figures can easily help to understand how deep these changes are. Indeed, as Africa possesses important natural resources and is a potential new market for Chinese products, a wave of migrants principally composed of Chinese businessmen, alongside their relatives, could be expected to come. La diaspora chinoise / Pierre Trolliet. Paris : Presses universitaires de France, c1994. In this way we can find 156,170 Chinese people living in Central America. Chinese migrants amount to 39.5 million and are scattered across 130 countries. The impact of diaspora engagement is difficult to assess, due to the difficulty disentangling causation and correlation, and quantifying the impact of elusive goods like skills and knowledge transfers. The main settlement is in Johannesburg, where there are two Chinatowns and an estimated 350,000 Chinese residents (Cox, 2013). Résumé de l'exposé . At the same time, the cultural influence sponsored by international Chinese cultural and artistic institutions abroad has been decisive. All rights reserved | Contact | Imprint. Dar Es Salaam is the city with the highest Chinese population. Lagos and Kano host the biggest Chinese communities in Nigeria. The United Kingdom has the largest Chinese population in the region. The Chinese ethnic diaspora, induced by the several migration waves that occurred since the 19th century, have inevitably led to the exportation of Chinese culture in several countries of the world. La durée est indispensable pour prouver la résistance à l’assimilation des migrants. In 2010 Chinese people living in the USA accounted for 37.6%, of the population. Bruneau Michel. Not only have Chinese migrants and their descendants developed unique histories and identities in the societies where they live, but they were already distinguished by dialect, region, class, type of migration, and nationality in their places of origin. Over the past decade there has been an accelerating trend of Chinese migration in Europe. The main Chinatown is the one in Ho Chi Minh City, located in the Cholon district. The authors believe that diaspora communities play a very important role in not only the economic development of a country but also in the growth of international influence in an increasingly globalized world. The popularity and influence of this festival has reached beyond China and Chinatowns and has become an expected event not only for the Chinese. The number of Chinese citizens in Indonesia has grown considerably in the last 20 years; the Chinese population has recently risen to 2,832,510 (2010). Abstract. Therefore, the amount of international migration is heavily dependent on these two countries (Gómez Díaz, 2012). For instance, a huge number of people around the world are celebrating the Chinese New Year or Chinese Spring Festival, which lasts several days. It led to major changes in all areas of society; labour flexibility and privatization left large numbers of workers unemployed, unable to be reabsorbed by the internal-market. Its main task therefore, is to serve as a catalyst for rebuilding the global African family in the service of the development and integration agenda of the continent. The Congolese diaspora is a tremendous source of human capital that can be used to contribute to economic and social development, especially as the country looks forward to transitioning into a new government after the December 23rd presidential elections. ; 2879. imprint. Similarly, the cities of Manchester and London in the UK continue to receive substantial numbers of Chinese Migrants. 4. Today, it is estimated that there are between 200,000 to 250,000 Chinese nationals or people of Chinese descent in Brazil (Roberti, 2012). According to the Blue Book of International Migrations of China, China is undergoing its third wave of migration. In October 2009, the Mayor of Johannesburg Amos Masondo, visited the Chinatown located in Cyrildene, in an act of ‘symbolic recognition’ to strengthen ties between the local community and the South African state. San Francisco is the largest Chinatown outside Asia, and New York has a Diaspora community which has witnessed the fastest increase in numbers over the last decade, with an overall population of 150,000 (Tébar Arjona, 2013). Report a problem. & Wu 2013),  In Spain’s case, economic progress experienced during the 1990’s and early 2000’s has been the fundamental factor in attracting Chinese migrants, with a Spanish-based Chinese diaspora of around 150,000 based there. The overseas Chinese population is 2,808,300 (2011). Selon Michel Bruneau (2011), le terme « diaspora Â» désigne un phénomène migratoire et transnational répondant à quatre principaux critères : 1. Des groupes dispersés qui conservent et développent entre eux et avec la société d’origine (lorsqu’elle existe encore), des échanges matériels et immatériels organisés en réseaux (personnes, biens, informations, capitaux, etc.). Finally, the paper will look at the main trends and prospects of Chinese diaspora to develop a better understanding of current migration flows as well as their future implications for local communities. 1ere sti2d stl std2a la diaspora chinoise cours plet. Located at the intersection of the humanities and social sciences, it encompasses disciplines as diverse as geography, sociology, history, anthropology, psychology, and political science. These new migrants tend to belong to a middle-class and intellectual elite, with a preference to migrate to Western industrialized countries and who want to find jobs in emerging market places, or to simply find a better environment with a higher quality of life for their children (Tébar Arjona, 2013). And in the city of Singapore nowadays, ethnic Chinese form 74.2% of the Singaporean population (Yeoh, 2013). The Overseas Chinese population in Thailand is 9,392,792 (2012) makes up approximately 11% of the entire population. The term “Chinese overseas” is generally used to refer to the approximately 46 million ethnic Chinese living outside China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macau. In south-east Asia, Chinese migrants dominate business despite forming only a small minority of the population, controlling around 60% of the region’s private corporate wealth (Xing, 2008). The estimated Chinese population in Europe is about 2.15 million (Gui, 2011) and the most striking point regarding migration from China to Europe are the rise in forms of irregular migration and the expansion of new channels of migration, especially student migration. diaspora’s identity perception and presentation, this thesis employs a qualitative approach with the methods of semi-structured interview and online observation, under the restriction of limited resource. One main challenge is on the economic level; the power of the business of the Chinese migrants has increased and sometimes it has overcome the economy of the host country. The oldest Chinatown in America is in San Francisco, though the largest one is in New York City. much larger than the Chinese diaspora, are of a much more recent historical vintage. This list may not reflect recent changes . 3. In 2006, the number reached 147,600, 3.66% of all local inhabitants (Minghuan, 2011). These institutions have been the vehicle to preserve and promote Chinese culture, arts and identity, whilst aiding integration into the wider British community. Rural-urban mobility, the polarization of the distribution of wealth and the consequent widening of the gap between rich and poor are all relevant factors for this migration. In 1995, Australia’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade published a 350-page report on overseas Chinese business networks, calling them ‘one of the main forces driving the dynamic growth that characterises the region’. It will then go in depth into the influence, the challenges and the most important contributions of Chinese culture on the global community. A group of roughly 70 Chinese carpenters from Macau hired by the renegade British Captain John Meares. Aller à la navigation. California had the largest number of Chinese immigrants in 2010 with 577,745 people and 32.0 % of the total Chinese-born population (Migration Policy Institute, 2010). your own Pins on Pinterest The Chinese diaspora is one of the largest spreads populations amongst many countries around the world, which contributed in influencing the life of the indigenous population and sometimes raised challenges and competitions, both for the immigrants and the indigenous population. Over the past decade there has been an accelerating trend of Chinese migration in Europe. When British … In the 1850s Bairro Chino, the main Peruvian Chinatown, was established in Lima. Including the ‘compatriots’ (tongbao) of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, the great majority of foreign direct investment in China has come from the Chinese diaspora. In 2010 3,347,229 Chinese people resided in the United States (US Government Census, 2010). A relevant example of this, can be considered the cultural links and influences that the People’s Republic of China have had on the Southeast Asian region. Currently, the most popular destinations for Chinese migrants in Europe are considered to be the United Kingdom and Spain. Traditionally, they form big communities to enhance relations within their members and feel at home in a new country. French Chinese communities are the oldest communities in Europe. Only in the last decades of the century, in the period of globalization, have constant and increasing transnational diasporic activitie… Asian migration, both domestic and international, is the largest globally. At the same time, Saint Petersburg has commenced to receive considerable amounts of Chinese migrants during the last years. The importance of the Chinese diaspora is widely recognized. However, we do know that governments can certainly do more to remove obstacles and create opportunities for diasporas to engage in economic development. The two main destinations for Chinese migrants in Oceania are Australia and New Zealand. Abstract. Two years ago, Angola was the second largest trading partner of China in Africa, after South Africa. Whereas in the past decades the principle reason for migration was the search for jobs and political asylum, nowadays the rise in Chinese population in North America has largely been fueled by educational immigration, with more than 250,000 Chinese students enrolled currently in US Universities, in the hopes of improving their employability and academic background in the US (Walker, 2013). Une population s’intégrant dans les pays d’accueil sans s’assimiler, c’est-à-dire conservant une conscience identitaire liée à la mémoire de la société et du territoire d’origine. There, they could sell both American and Chinese goods. Les diasporas asiatiques (chinoise, indienne) occupent une part croissante des diasporas mondiales tout en représentant une faible part de la population d’origine. Even with the conflicting statistics on the number of Chinese in Tanzania, we can say that in 2000 statistics of Tanzania's immigration showed that they had issued work or residence permits to just 239 Chinese nationals, making them one of the smaller groups of foreigners in the country. Chinese communities have a broad influence on the local population. Discover (and save!) The analysis will begin by providing some statistics related to the major Chinese communities spread across each continent. Aller au contenu. diaspora chinoise chine informations. emmanuel ma mung la diaspora chinoise gographie dune. Author: Ien Ang, Western Sydney University. In Europe, the Congolese diaspora is estimated at around 300,000 to 400,000, and most of these people are concentrated in France, … Two years ago, there was an increase in migration of 20,000 people due to Chinese investments in the country and work opportunities for migrants in the region. In addition, the second generation of Chinese diaspora members may live in cultural borderlands; they do not fully identify themselves either with the culture of their native country, or with that of the host country. Venezuela is home to more than 50,000 Chinese people (Amnesty International Report, 1990-1994). & Wu 2013). Russia / China is always trying to find new economic partners and Russia appears to be a profitable and economically attractive one for the future. The data presented in this section intends to give a detailed outline about Chinese Diaspora and their presence in the global community. The numbers of people with Chinese origin in New Zealand are also increasing rapidly. Other relevant examples of Chinese diaspora communities formed in Asia, are Malaysia and Thailand. The economic power of the Chinese Diaspora. This article examines the impact on local development of the mobilization of resources from the diaspora. Despite Chinese contact with North America occurring as early as the 16th Century, there was not significant immigration until mid-way through the 19th Century. As is the case in migration processes, the individuals advertise their heritage in the host country and within its community, hence involuntarily also exporting with them Chinese traditions and cultural goods such as science, medicine, food, and design. Other regions where communities are situated are Pretoria and Port Elizabeth. Thus, several explanatory factors for this “third wave” of Chinese migration; have been argued, the most important being political reform reasons, infrastructure improvements, pollution, and education. The diaspora communities of Chinese people are based mainly in Moscow’s Chinatown, where 15,000 Chinese citizens live nowadays (Zeihan, 2014). China has always represented unknown, exotic and oriental culture, different from the Western way of life. Between the 1950s and the 1980s widespread violence and instability in the region shifted the destination of Chinese migrants to more industrialised areas including North America, Europe, Japan and Australia. The main communities are in Selangor, with 1.45 million Chinese inhabitants, which constitute 29% of the entire population. Dans un contexte de dissémination mondiale, en position d'exterritorialité, la diaspora revêt deux caractères morphologiques : 1. multipolaire, 2. interpolaire du fait des relations entre le foyer d'origine (la Chine territoriale) et les foyers d'accueil. ChinaSF, Accessed on: 09.04.14, Available at:, San Francisco Chinatown, Available at: 2. Thus, we can conclude that people tend to migrate in order to gain a better quality of life (such as social services and infrastructure), but always to be integrated in the places of destination (Gómez Díaz, 2012). The Chinese population in Vietnam is estimated at approximately 1 million (United Nations, 1993) and it represents one of Vietnam's largest minority groups. The Chinese diaspora in France consists of people of Chinese ancestry who were born in or immigrated to France.The population of the community is estimated to be about 600,000, making it the largest Asian community in the country. Books Advanced Search Today's Deals New Releases Amazon Charts Best Sellers & More The Globe & Mail Best Sellers New York Times Best Sellers Best Books of the Month Children's Books Textbooks Kindle Books Audible Audiobooks Livres en français Cities such as London, Paris or Madrid have witnessed a big increase of Chinese citizens over recent years. Venezuela is the home for the highest concentration of Chinese population in Latin America. La diaspora chinoise en Occident. The main communities can be found in the United Kingdom, France, and Italy. To conclude, the Chinese Diaspora has led to several impacts both on the indigenous communities and the host countries on the economic, political and cultural level, both positively and negatively. Nowadays we all can benefit from advantages of the Chinese tradition such as medicine, science, design, technology, as well as benefit from the pleasure of Chinese food, cultural events and festivals. Wanning Sun examines the key role of the media in the Chinese diaspora. The Chinese migrant presence in the African region is proving ever more prominent and important. Ressources de géographie pour les enseignants, Ressources pour les concours (Capes, agrégations, ENS...), Géographie en langues étrangères (DNL allemand, anglais, italien, espagnol), « Les populations d'origine indienne hors de l'Inde : fabrique et enjeux d'une "diaspora" », "Phénomène diasporique, transnationalisme, lieux et territoires", La Chine, la modernisation encadrée d'un territoire global, Les relations nature-sociétés face au changement global, Le développement durable, approches géographiques, La frontière, discontinuités et dynamiques, Le vin entre sociétés, marchés et territoires, Les espaces littoraux : gestion, protection, aménagement, Les nouvelles dynamiques du tourisme dans le monde, Fait religieux et construction de l'espace, Géographie de la santé : espaces et sociétés, Remue-méninges, conférences de 2001 à 2003, Territoires européens : régions, États, Union, Les espaces ruraux et périurbains en France : populations, activités, mobilités, Le Japon : les fragilités d'une puissance, États-Unis : espaces de la puissance, espaces en crises, Afrique subsaharienne : territoires et conflits, La Chine entre espaces domestiques et espace mondial, La Russie : des territoires en recomposition, La Méditerranée, une géographie paradoxale, Lyon, espaces et échelles d’une métropole européenne, Les mondes arctiques, espaces, milieux, sociétés.